SE Newsletter December 1998

Solar Eclipse Calendar: SEC for December

Hi, Please find herewith Solar Eclipse Calendar for December.

If you have remarks or suggestions, please let me know.

December 02, 1989 Solar Max fell from orbit and burned up in Earth's atmosphere. Launched in 1980, Solar Max was repaired in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984. Solar Max studied the Sun and discovered 10 comets skimming past or crashing into the Sun.

December 02, 1995 The SOHO satellite was launched in a halo orbit around the L-1 Lagrangian point between the Sun and the Earth.

December 06, 1631 The first transit of Venus as predicted by Johannes Kepler was observed.

December 06, 1882 The atmosphere of Venus is detected for the first time.

December 10, 1974 Helios 1 was launched to observe the Sun and its solar wind. It was constructed in W Germ and launched by the US from Cape Canaveral in Florida. Because it was equipped with special heat-dispersal systems, the spacecraft were able to withstand extremely high temp's, which reached an estimated 700 F (370 C). It was the closest any spacecraft has approached the Sun (28 million miles from the Sun).

December 10, 1997 Start of the Solar Eclipse Mailing List (Solar Eclipse List) on internet. This is the first worldwide Mailing List on Solar eclipses. Jan Van Gestel from Belgium offers the server, Patrick Poitevin is the Solar Eclipse List owner.

December 12, 1871 E. W. Maunder mentioned an eclipse comet on December 12, 1871, observed by A.C. Ranyard. But he speaks " ... less convincing evidence ..." comparing with the eclipse comet of 1882 and 1893. On the drawing you can clearly see the dark lines visible in the corona.

December 12, 1871 Jules Janssen (France) uses spectroscopy from an eclipse in India to propose that the corona consists of both hot gases and cooler particles and therefore is part of the Sun. Jules Janssen discovered dark lines in the solar corona spectrum.

December 12, 1928 Jean Meeus birthday.

December 13, 1974 Last solar eclipse on a Friday the 13 th. The next solar eclipse on a Friday 13 th is in July 2018. Both are partial solar eclipses. There are 24 solar eclipses on a Friday the 13 th between 0 and 3000. Of which 13 partial, 9 annular and 2 total solar eclipses. The most odd is the one of 13.03.313 which was an annular eclipse.

December 16, 1965 Pioneer 6 was launched to observe the Sun, orbiting between Earth and Venus in a 311-day orbit. The spacecraft is still functional to this day, and is the world's oldest surviving spacecraft.

December 19, 1973 Skylab took its now famous photo of a giant solar prominence loop.

December 22, 0968 First clear description of the corona seen during a total eclipse, by a chronicler in Constantinople. The first mention of the corona may have been due to Plutarch, who lived from about AD 46 to 120. Plutarch's book 'On the Face in the Orb of the Moon' contains a reference to 'a certain splendour' round the eclipsed Sun which could well have been the corona.

December 22, 1870 Jules CÚsar Janssen (France) uses a balloon to escape the German siege of Paris to study the December 22 eclipse in Algeria. He reached Aran (or Wahran), Algeria, but the eclipse is clouded out.

December 22, 1870 Photograph high level of sun spots in Eclipse/Bryan Brewer 1991 page 29 and sketch page 48. See also Young's description on the Fraunhofer lines in Total Eclipse of the Sun/J. Zirker 1995 p. 12+18.

December 22, 1870 Spain: Numbers of scientific experiments. Charles A. Young (US) was successful in Spain and revealed that the chromosphere is responsible for producing both the flash spectrum and dark line spectrum observed in Sun's photosphere. Corona was bright and suspect on relation to activity.

December 25, 2038 Partial Solar Eclipse with magnitude of 0.845 on Christmas Island. On December 26, 2019 there is a partial eclipse of magnitude 0.658 on the same island. At Christmas Creek, Western Australia, both partial eclipses: a magnitude of 0.798 and 0.297. Christmas Island will get a total solar eclipse on 22 July 2028 with almost 4 minutes of totality.

December 26, 1886 Prof. Theodor Ritter Oppolzer (1841-1886), professor in astronomy in Vienna and author of the monumental Canon der Finsternisse died. He started his work October 22, 1885 and it was published spring 1887 after his death.

December 30, 1777 Eclipse observed by Captain James Cook (actual date December 29) during his 3 rd travel. Observation at Eclipse Island but currently called Cook Island (at the entrance of the lagoon surrounded by Christmas Island in the Pacific). It was a partial eclipse of max. 30% and at about 59 degrees altitude. ENB8

December 31, 1842 Annular eclipse on New Years eve.

December 31, 1880 Partial solar eclipse on New years eve.

December 31, 2195 Partial Solar Eclipse on New Years eve.

December 31, 2233 Total Solar Eclipse of December 31, 2233 will be visible on New Years day, January 1, 2234 for the West Pacific.

December 31, 2252 Total Solar Eclipse of December 31, 2252 will be visible on New Years day, January 1, 2253 for the West Pacific.

Best regards, Patrick Poitevin

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